As a photographer who works primarily within an art context, I often find myself seeking opportunities to share my work. In saying that, I would imagine being able to convincingly write and communicate about your work is a skill all photographers might find useful.
A project pitch and a project proposal are similar enough that you might consider approaching them the same way. For example, when pitching a project, you might be asking for funding or resources to actually be able to do the project. When proposing a completed project to a gallery or institution, you might instead convince them to give you space to show your work. Similarly, for commercial photographers, a project treatment might discuss similar ideas and be shown to a potential stakeholder, such as a client or design agency. In saying that, it almost doesn’t matter whether you are writing prospectively or retrospectively; the purpose of your writing is to create a persuasive document to get someone who can give you something to give you the thing.
This video narrows down a potential argument to three questions. As a further exercise, you further might consider the 2-2-2 rule when answering these questions. The 2-2-2 rule means you write one set of responses where each answer is two pages long. You also write a more succinct version, which is only two paragraphs long. Finally, you might consider writing a very succinct elevator pitch version, where each answer is only two sentences long. Given the nature of questions, this will help you further hone and understand your own project.